Multi-functional plasma reactors, gasifiers, and cracking chambers
PLAZARIUM PCRplasma reactors are complicated plasma units where reactions with the use of low-temperature plasma take place. PLAZARIUM PCRplasma reactors are designed for sufficient mixing of reagents; for creating conditions for efficient heat and mass transfer at minimal heat losses; for creating conditions for the necessary chemical reactions, including for the purposes of non-ore material melting and waste disposal. PLAZARIUM PCRplasma reactors are complicated plasma units where reactions with the use of low-temperature plasma take place. PLAZARIUM PCRplasma reactors are designed for sufficient mixing of reagents; for creating conditions for efficient heat and mass transfer at minimal heat losses; for creating conditions for the necessary chemical reactions, including for the purposes of non-ore material melting and waste disposal. The possibility of using PLAZARIUM PCRplasma reactors in special-purpose structures and special configurations for plasma destruction of chemical, biological and bacteriological weapon components, destruction of chemical production wastes including organohalogen wastes, pesticides past their expiration dates, polychlorinated biphenyls and other persistent organic pollutants, for destruction of medical wastes, various toxic wastes, and reduction of radioactive waste storage volume, expands the opportunities of equipment application significantly. The PLAZARIUM PCRplasma-chemical reactors use a practically inertialess heating element, the electric arc.
The inertialessness of the electric arc makes it possible to automate the process and to quickly reorganize the operating regime of the reactor for very different types of feedstock (different types of waste) with the purpose of producing a wide range of products out of it.
The high power and high density of thermal energy in the electric arc makes it possible to create compact and process-oriented plasma reactors and allows, by way of using the heat and the catalytic effect of low-temperature plasma, for creating a medium of practically any chemical composition in them, and for performing chemical processes with high velocity and productivity.
Low-temperature plasma (~5000 °С) is used as heat carrier, it flows into the plasma-chemical reactor from the jet-type plasma torch with a wide range of plasma-forming one-, two- or multicomponent gases (argon, helium, nitrogen, air, mixture of argon and nitrogen with hydrogen, ammonia, water steam), allowing for achieving high temperatures in the plasma reactor (from 1650 to 2500 °С and more).
The PLAZARIUM PCRplasma reactors, gasifiers, and cracking (plasma afterburning) chambers for processing of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes and raw materials have different types of construction, which make it possible to achieve full destruction of resins, dioxins and furans. This can be achieved by long-term regulated impact in the plasma chamber and through labyrinth paths of the afterburner where the temperature exceeds 1400°С, and subsequent high-speed cooling of the synthesis gas. Functionally, plasma reactors are divided into 3 groups:
- Plasma reactors for highly hazardous (chemical, toxic, biological, bacteriological, medical, and radioactive) wastes;
- Plasma reactors, gasifiers for standard types of wastes and raw materials (MSW, biomass, coal, oil sludges, industrial wastes, etc.);
- Plasma-chemical reactors for specialized, scientific and technological applications.
The major and primary advantage of PLAZARIUM PCRplasma reactors is the possibility of using steam plasma and blast steam for chemical processes inside the reactor chamber.
The principle of using steam or air-steam mixture for gasification is that due to the absence of ballast nitrogen and, as a consequence, to the relatively small volume of synthesis gas compared to the volume of total waste incineration products, there is the possibility of decreasing the dimensions (and the manufacturing cost) of the plasma reactor, the plasma afterburning chamber, and all the systems for synthesis gas treatment and cooling. Also, due to the absence of ballast nitrogen in the plasma reactor and in the plasma afterburning chamber as a result of thermal influence, no nitrogen dioxides (NO2) or nitrogen oxides (NOx) are formed.
Plasma reactors and plasma afterburning chambers are easily built into the enterprise’s existing production chain, they are a standard element of gas treatment systems, also they can be built into the existing pyrolysis plants and into standard garbage burning plants (incinerators) in order to perform the function of plasma afterburning of the effluent gas.
PLAZARIUM PCRplasma reactors, gasifiers and afterburners: Characteristics Value / Type Feedstock type Solid, liquid, dispersed, and gaseous (different types of reactors) Minimum capacity of plasma reactors (solid feedstock) from 50 to 1000 kg per hour (from 1 to 25 tons per day) Minimum capacity of plasma gasifiers (liquid feedstock) from 30 liters per hour Minimum capacity of afternurners (gas) from 100 m3 per hour Number of the plasma reactor shell layers from 2 to 6 ( depending on the reactor type and purpose) Outer protective shell Heat-proof stainless steel Inner operating shell Multilayer fireproof lining Heat carrier type Low-temperature plasma (~5000 °С) Operating temperature in the plasma reactor chamber, °С from 1650 to 2500 and more (depending on the process) Type of cooling in the plasma reactor of the gasifier Air and/or water, with possible recuperation Number of cooling circuits from 3 to 5 Temperature of the outer wall of the protective shell body in the plasma reactor of the gasifier no greater than 40 °С Power consumption of the main process equipment (exclusive of the industrial plasma system) from 5 to 50 kW (depending on the capacity) Fire- and explosion-proofing system Explosive valves with nitrogen supply system AC mains voltage, V 3 phases, 380±10% (Note 1) Supply voltage frequency, Hz 50 (default) or 60 (optional) Ambient operating temperature range, °С from - 60 to + 50 Overall dimensions, L×W×H, mcorrespond with dimensions of maritime containers of 10/15/20/30/40 ft Quantity of containers 1 Total reactor weight, tons from 0.5 to 15 (depending on the capacity) Operation mode (Operation cycle ratio) Continuous, non-stop (duty cycle=100%)
1 - The plasma system and the other energy systems provide for automatic adaptation to any input voltage within the range of 380–450 V for three phases.
2 - The plasma reactors, gasifiers and afterburners are designed for particular types of gas and feedstock according to the characteristics in the customer’s RS.
3 - All the characteristics of the plasma reactors, gasifiers and afterburners are manufactured in accordance with the customer’s RS.
The structural design of the plasma reactor, gasifier and afterburner is defined by the Contractor after agreeing the overall and connection dimensions with the Customer.
List of EquipmentThe
PLAZARIUM PCRplasma reactors, gasifiers and cracking (afterburning) chambers: Item Quantity, pcs. Operating manual 1 The structure of the single platform of the plasma-chemical reactor, gasifier, or cracking chamber: The PLAZARIUM TPSindustrial plasma system with the primary and backup plasma torches 1 The body with lining materials, the necessary connecting pipes, shell sockets, and Reactor lining for the plasma torches (primary and backup) 1 Blast gas inlets from 1 to 10 End product outlets up to 10 Explosive valve(s); 1-2 (depending on the structure) Portholes for installation of plasma torch (primary and backup plasma torches) with regard for free space for their installation, dismantling, and maintenance; 1 per each plasma torch Device for inert gas supply by dampers to pressurize the reactor space during the removal of plasma torches while the plasma-chemical reactor or plasma cracking chamber is in operation; 1 per each plasma torch Temperature sensors, pressure sensors, gas meters and auxiliary equipment; 1 set Electric equipment with a lead-in board; 1 set Heat monitoring and control cabinet; 1 set Remote control and information display console (Note 1) 1 Download and supply device with a lock that provides for prevention of atmosphere air intrusion into the plasma reactor or cracking chamber space; (Note 2) 1
1 - The control system is either independent, or fully integrated into the main console of the head unit.
2 - Optional, depending on the plasma reactor or gasifier type, and its functional use.